Anton Semenovich Makarenko


Ðóññêàÿ âåðñèÿ                                              LIFE AND WRITING DATES                                                    Óêðà¿íñüêà âåðñiÿ

1888, March 1 (13)

A.S.Makarenko was born in the city of Belopol, Sumy district of the Kharkov province in the family of a worker, a senior painter of the Belopolsky railway depot of the Kharkov railway. Father - Semyon Grigorievich, mother - Tatyana Mikhailovna, nee Dergacheva.


Seven-year-old Anton is sent to a two-year elementary school.

1901, January

The Makarenko family moves to the town of Kryukov and Anton becomes a student of the Kremenchug four-class city school.

1904, June

He graduated with an “excellent” urban four-year school (as per 1872, it was a school with a 6-year course of study) in the city of Kremenchug, Poltava province.

1904, August

A.S.Makarenko becomes a student of one-year pedagogical courses at a two-year railway school of the Ministry of Education in Posad Kryukov (on the Dnieper).

September 1, 1905
to September 24, 1911

A.S.Makarenko works as a teacher of the Russian language, drawing and drafting a two-year railway school of the Ministry of Education in Posad Kryukov (on the Dnieper).


A.S.Makarenko takes an active part in organizing the congress of teachers of the Southern Railways, makes a speech at the congress, and participates in the drafting of resolutions on keynote reports.

September 25, 1911
to October 4, 1914

A.S.Makarenko teaches at the two-year railway school of the Ministry of Education at the Dolinskaya station of the Southern Railways of the Kherson province.

1914, August 1

He entered the Poltava Teachers Institute.


A.S.Makarenko wrote his first story "Silly Day" and sent it to A.M.Gorky.

1916, September 20

Drafted into military service.

1917, March 19

Demobilized from the army due to visual impairment.

1917, June 15

He graduated from the Poltava Teachers Institute with a gold medal, and became a teacher at the Poltava Higher Primary School, in which he worked until the end of 1917.

1917, December

Appointed an inspector of the higher elementary railway school at the Kryukov station of the Southern Railways and a member of the collegium of the Kryukovsky department of public education.

1919, August

After Kryukov’s occupation by the White Guards, Anton Semyonovich moved to Poltava.

September 9, 1919
to September 3, 1920

Head of the 2nd primary city school in the city of Poltava.

1919 - 1920

Elected a member of the provincial board of the Union of Education Workers in the city of Poltava.

1920, September 3

A.S.Makarenko accepts the proposal of the Poltava Department of Public Education to organize and lead a colony for homeless and juvenile offenders.

September 3, 1920
to September 3, 1928

He was in charge of the colony named after M.Gorky (the name of M.Gorky was assigned to the colony in 1921).


A.S.Makarenko was elected as a member of the Poltava City Council.

October 14, 1922
to November 27, 1922

Studying at the Central Institute of Organizers of Public Education of the People's Commissariat of the RSFSR. He left the institute, as this was demanded by the interests of the M.Gorky colony.


The article “The Gorky Colony” by Makarenko appeared in the Poltava newspaper “The Voice of Labor”, and the article “Experience in educational work in the Poltava labor colony named after M.Gorky" appeared in the second book of the Poltava magazine “New Stitches" (“New Trails”).

1924, November

The restoration of the Trepke estate was completed, and the colony named after M.Gorky, which had been dispersed in two places until that time, was reunited on the banks of Kolomak. By the summer of 1925 there were 140 pupils in the colony - 130 boys and 10 girls. In the same year, the question of creating a Komsomol organization was decided.

1925, July

On the A.S.Makarenko's initiative, the correspondence of the colonists with the great Russian writer A.M.Gorky started. The first letter was written by Anton Semenovich Makarenko to A.M.Gorky on July 8, 1925. A.M.Gorky answered A.S.Makarenko in a letter on July 19, 1925. The correspondence between A.S.Makarenko and A.M.Gorky continues until his death M.Gorky.


A.S.Makarenko starts working on the “Pedagogical poem”.


A.S.Makarenko made a report "Organization of the education of difficult childhood" at the All-Ukrainian conference of children's towns. The report made a great impression on the meeting participants.

1926, May 8

A.S.Makarenko informs in a letter to A.M.Gorky that "the passionate struggle for Kuryazh is over ... Tomorrow with two students I am leaving for Kuryazh to take a colony ..." "May I, - writes A.S. Makarenko, “at this critical and perhaps the most interesting moment in the life of our colony, to greet you on behalf of the whole colony and to thank you for the energy and courage that your name tells us, let alone mention live communication with you.”

1926, May 15

The colony named after M.Gorky was transferred to Kuryazh (8 km. from Kharkov), to the estate where the orphanage of the All-Ukrainian Commission for Helping Children was located, disbanded by the colony's arrival. 280 pupils of this orphanage became a part of the colony.

1927, June

At the invitation of the Chief Political Administration of Ukraine, A.S.Makarenko participates in the organization of a children's labor commune in the village of New Kharkov (a suburb of Kharkov). In October of the same year, the construction of the building for the commune was completed.

October 20, 1927
to July 1, 1935

A.S.Makarenko is working as the head of the Kharkov labor commune named after F.E.Dzerzhinsky.

1927, December 29

The opening of the labor commune named after F.E.Dzerzhinsky.

1927 - 1932

A.S.Makarenko is working on the characteristics of types and prototypes for the “Pedagogical Poem”.

1928, March 14

He made a report "The main provisions of the organization of the educational process in the commune named after F.Dzerzhinsky" at a meeting of the social education section of the Scientific Research Institute of Pedagogy of the People's Commissariat of Ukrainian SSR in Kharkov. The resolution condemned the educational methods of Makarenko.

1928, July 6

A.M.Gorky arrives in the colony, where he stays for three days, then together with a group of colonists he visits the commune named after F.E.Dzerzhinsky on July 9.

1928, September 3

A.S.Makarenko is forced to resign as the head of the colony named after M.Gorky. He focuses his pedagogical activity on the labor commune named after F.E.Dzerzhinsky.


Gorky in the article “On the Union of Soviets” described his impressions of the colony and described A.S.Makarenko as a teacher of a new type. The article was published in the journal Our Achievements, M. — L.,State Publishing House, 1929, Prince. 2.


A.S.Makarenko wrote (in collaboration with N.E.Fere) the work "On the Giant Front" (about the state farm "Giant"). The brochure was published in Ukrainian.


The book “March of the Year 30” (about the life of the F.E.Dzerzhinsky commune) was written.


A preliminary plan was developed for a large book entitled “Experience in the Methodology of the Work of the Children's Labor Colony”.


The novel “FD-1” is written. In a letter on October 5, 1932, Makarenko informs A.M.Gorky: "The FD-1 manuscript, a large essay on twelve sheets, has been accepted ...” The manuscript is not fully preserved.


A.S.Makarenko started working on the large book "Experience in the methodology of the work of the child labor colony". The foreword, three sections of the introduction and the chapter "Organizational period" were written".


The book "March of the Year 30" is published.


The article “Teachers shrug” was written for the collection dedicated to the fifth anniversary of the F.E.Dzerzhinsky commune and the materials were prepared: “One Day of the Commune”, “Inverted Pages” and “Constitution of the FED Country”. The collection was published in a departmental publication, Kharkov, 1932.

1932, December

A.S.Makarenko in connection with the fifth anniversary of the F.E.Dzerzhinsky commune for his energetic, dedicated work was awarded: a diploma and inscribed gold watch by the board of the State Political Administration of the Ukrainian SSR, a diploma, a badge and the title of best drummer, and a diploma of the People’s Commissariat Education of the Ukrainian SSR.

1933, January 1

A.S.Makarenko wrote a letter to A.M.Gorky, in which he thanked him for the letter dated December 17, 1932 with a review of the book “March 30”: “Your letter about my book is the most important event in my life, I can’t add anything to these words, except that I just don’t understand: how can you have such a big soul like yours ... ”.

1933, September

A.S.Makarenko finishes the first part of the “Pedagogical Poem” and hands it over to A.M.Gorky in Moscow. September 25, 1933 A.M. Gorky writes A.S. Makarenko about the first part of the “Pedagogical poem”: “In my opinion, “The Poem” was very successful for you. Let alone mention the significance of its “plot”, about interesting material, you managed to develop this material very successfully and found the true, vivid, sincere tone of the story in which your humor is appropriate, as much as possible. It seems to me that the manuscript does not require serious revision, only it is necessary to indicate the gradual quantitative growth of the colonists, otherwise much is said about the “commanders”, but the army is not visible. The manuscript needs to be published. How much more have you written? Is it possible to finish the first part with the decision to move to Kuryazh?”.


A.S.Makarenko wrote the play “Major” and under the pseudonym Andrei Galchenko presented it to the All-Union competition of plays. The jury approved the play.


The first part of the “Pedagogical Poem” was published for the first time, the almanac “Year XVII”, M.: “Soviet Literature”, Prince. 3.

1934, March 7

A letter has been written to A.M.Gorky, which says about the first part of the “Pedagogical Poem”: “Thank you. Thanks for your attention, support, and maybe protection, my “Pedagogical Poem” was released. For me, the release of “Poems is the most important event in life.” In July 1934, A.M.Gorky wrote to A.S.Makarenko: “... upset by the fact that the second part of your “Pedagogical poem” of yours“ moves slowly ”. It seems to me that you do not correctly assess the significance of this work, which should justify and strengthen your method of raising children. ... I am really asking you - strain and end the second part of the "Poem". I insist on this not only as a writer, but - for the motive stated above. ”

1934, June 1

A.S.Makarenko was accepted to the Union of Soviet Writers of the USSR.

1934, August

The second part of the “Pedagogical Poem” is completed and sent to A.M.Gorky.


The article “This is our history” which summarizes the history of the F.E.Dzerzhinsky commune is written.

September 18

A.S.Makarenko wrote a letter to A.M.Gorky, in which he informed about the second part of the “Pedagogical Poem”: “I tried to cross out everything that catches my eye, I deleted more than two printed pages in total, but i can't thoroughly remake the whole part because the it is built on a special principle, which I consider to be correct, but which, probably, was poorly reflected in my work on the book. ”


The first part of the “Pedagogical Poem” was published as a separate publication, Moscow: Publishing House “Fiction”.

1934 (end)

The play in three acts is written - “Newtonian Rings”. The play is not published.

1935, January 26

In a letter to A.M.Gorky, A.S.Makarenko writes about the third part of the “Pedagogical poem”: “I began the third part of the “Pedagogical poem”, which I hope to present to the seventh almanac. I really want the third part to be the best, so I’ll try to finish it earlier so that I can make corrections, and maybe even write anew if necessary.”


A.S.Makarenko was elected as a member of the Dzerzhinsky District Council of Kharkov.

1935, July 1

Appointed as an assistant to the head of the department of labor colonies of the People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs of the Ukrainian SSR and moves to Kiev.

1935, September

A.S.Makarenko finishes working on the manuscript of the “Pedagogical Poem”. In a letter to A.M.Gorky, he writes: “Today, by airmail, I've sent you the third part of the “Pedagogical Poem”. I don’t know, of course, how it turned out, but I wrote it with great excitement.”

1935, October

The part of the “Pedagogical poem”: “The third part of the “Poem” seems to me even more valuable than the first two. With great excitement, I read the scene of the meeting between Gorky and Kuryaz, and indeed a lot of things devilishly concerned ... Well - what? Congratulations on a good book, warm congratulations.”


The article "Methodology of organizing the educational process" is written.


The article "Public education in the USSR" is written.


The second and third parts of the “Pedagogical Poem” were published for the first time. Almanac "Year XVIII", M .: "Soviet literature", Prince. 5 and 8.


A play by A.S.Makarenko “Major” under the pseudonym Andrei Galchenko, Moscow: Publishing House “Fiction” is published.

1936, February 11

A.S.Makarenko spoke at the 2nd exemplary Moscow school named after K.E. Voroshilov at a meeting of students of VIII, IX and X classes about the "Pedagogical poem."


A.S.Makarenko's speech at a debate about the “Pedagogical Poem”, organized by the faculty and students of the Moscow Regional Pedagogical Institute.

1936, May

He spoke at the Higher Communist Institute of Education due to the discussion of the "Pedagogical Poem".

June 19-22

A.S.Makarenko in the first days after the death of A.M.Gorky writes articles: “Maxim Gorky in my life”, “My first teacher” and “Close, dear, unforgettable”.

1936, July 27

A.S.Makarenko meets the readers, writers and critics in the House of Writers (now the House of Writers) of the Union of Soviet Writers in Moscow.


The third part of the “Pedagogical Poem”, the publishing house “Fiction”, M.


A.S.Makarenko begins the big novel "The Ways of Generation". He also collects material for the Book for Parents and starts writing the story "Flags on the Towers".


The articles “A wonderful monument”, “On the individual and society”, “The joy of creative work” and others were written.

October 10, 1936
to January 1937

A.S.Makarenko, working as an assistant to the head of the department of labor colonies of the NKVD of the Ukrainian SSR, manages (concurrently) a colony in Brovary - a suburb of Kiev.

1937, February

Moving to Moscow.


A series of lectures on raising children in the family was written.


A.S.Makarenko writes the novel “Honor”, finishes the “Book for Parents” (Volume 1), which he co-wrote with his wife G.S.Makarenko.

1937, April 21

On behalf of the lecture bureau of the Moscow Regional Council of Trade Unions, he gives a lecture on "Fiction on the education of children".


The third part of the “Pedagogical Poem” was published as a separate publication, Moscow: Publishing House “Fiction”.


“Pedagogical Poem” was published, the last edition during the life of A.S.Makarenko, three parts in one book, publishing house “Fiction”, M.


The “Book for parents” was published, the magazine “Krasnaya nov”, M.,No.7,8,9,10. The same year, “Book for parents” was published as a separate publication, publishing house “Fiction”, M.


A.S.Makarenko actively collaborates in newspapers and magazines, writes and publishes essays, short stories, socio-political, pedagogical, journalistic and critical articles: “Occurrence in the "Star"", "Childhood and Literature", "Joy of Our Life", "New Life", "The purpose of education", "Our banner", "Happiness", "The right of the author", "Writers are active figures of Soviet democracy", "Heroic struggle", "Friendly laboratory", "A few hours on the channel", "These days”, “Bad Tale”, “The Power of Soviet Humanism”, “Natural Failure”, “Tales of a Simple Life”, “Kochubey ”of Perventsev”, “The Boy from Urzhum”, “On the Threshold of the Third Decade”, “I Will vote for comrade Bulganin and Gudov”, “On human feelings”, “Case from the past”, “On topics for writers”, “Elective law of workers”, "“Chapaev” by D. Furmanov", “More collectivity”, “Praskovya Nikitichna Pichugina”, “Case on a Campaign”, “Grishka”, as well as the story “Lieutenant Yablonsky” and the article “Choosing a Profession”, which were published after the death of the author.


The story "Honor" was published, the magazine "October", 1937, Prince. XI, XII; 1938, Prince I, V, VI.

1938, January

A.S.Makarenko gave four lectures for senior officials of the People's Commissariat of the RSFSR “Problems of Soviet school education”.

1938, May 9

A.S.Makarenko meets readers at the machine tool plant named after S.Ordzhonikidze, devoted to the discussion of "Books for parents".

1938, June

A.S.Makarenko spoke at the 2nd model school named after K.E.Voroshilov in Moscow at the parent meeting due to the discussion of “Books for Parents”.

1938, July 11

A.S.Makarenko conducts a conversation with the young writers on the topic "How to create a work of art".

1938, July 22

At a meeting of parents in the editorial office of the magazine "Public Person" A.S.Makarenko gives a lecture on the topic "Family and parenting".

1938, October 16

A.S.Makarenko speaks at a meeting of teachers of Leningrad and the Leningrad region. The transcript was published under the title "Some conclusions from my pedagogical experience"..


A.S.Makarenko finished the story “Flags on the Towers”, writes the literary film script “The Colonists” (the script is not finished).


The story "Flags on the towers" was published in the magazine "Krasnaya nov" No.6,7,8.

1938, October 18

He performs at a meeting with readers in the Leningrad Palace of Culture named after S.Kirov, dedicated to the story "Flags on the Towers".

1938, October 20

Report by A.S.Makarenko at the Scientific and Practical Institute of Special Schools and Orphanages of the NKP RSFSR. The transcript is published under the title “About My Experience”. The transcript is published under the title “About My Experience”.


Stories, essays, socio-political, pedagogical and other articles were written and published: “Problems of upbringing in the Soviet school”, “Education of character in the school”, “In search of a hero”, “Educational value of children's literature”, “Against the template”, “Soviet pilots”, “Style of children's literature”, “Conversation with the reader”, “Conversation with beginning writers”, “Doctor”, “Schubert symphony”, “Prize”, “Unforgettable meeting”, as well as stories that were published after death author: "Teacher of literature" and "New Year’s."

1939, January 1

The literary film script for "Detfilm" - "True Character" is completed.

1939, January 29

A.S.Makarenko wrote “An Open Letter to F.Levine” - a response to an article by F. Levin about the work “Flags on the Towers”. The letter was published after the death of A.S. Makarenko.

1939, February 1

The Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR of January 31, 1939, “On the awarding of Soviet writers” was published. A.S.Makarenko was awarded the Order of the Red Banner of Labor.

1939, February 8

A.S.Makarenko spoke at the Frunze District Teacher’s House in Moscow with a report on “Education in the family and school”.

1939, February

The article "On Communist Ethics" was written.

1939, February 18

A.S.Makarenko spoke in Moscow at the celebration of the 20th anniversary of school No.1 of the Yaroslavl Railway.


Articles, stories and reviews have been written and published: “I want to go home”, “Notes of the teacher”, “Literature and society”, “Great reward”, “Great work ahead of myself”, as well as the article “Will, courage, determination” published after the death of the writer.

1939, March 1

In the lecture hall of Moscow State University, he gave a lecture on the topic "On Communist Education and Behavior".

1939, March 9

He spoke at the Kharkov Pedagogical Institute. The transcript is published under the title “My Pedagogical Views”.

1939, March 13

A.S.Makarenko arrived at the House of Creativity of the Union of Soviet Writers of the USSR in the holiday village of Golitsyno, Moscow Region, 43 km away from Moscow, where he completed the literary film script "Business trip".

1939, end of March

The story "Flags on the towers" was finished for a separate edition.

1939, March 29

He spoke in Moscow at a meeting of teachers of the Yaroslavl Railway with a report on the theme “From work experience”.

1939, April 1

Anton Semenovich Makarenko suddenly died at st.Golitsyno of the Belarusian-Baltic Railway . He died of severe heart disease at the age of 51. He was buried in Moscow at the Novodevichy cemetery. he bronze monument on the A.S.Makarenko’s grave was installed in 1952, the author of which is the people's artist of the USSR V.E.Tsigal.
Obituary of A.S.Makarenko in Literaturnaya Gazeta dated 04.05.1939.

Biographical photo materials

Biographical documents

School educational filmstrip "A.S.Makarenko"
(Ukrainian Studio of Chronicles and Documentary Films (1974))

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Documentary film "Anton Makarenko, teacher"
(Ukrainian Order "Mark of Honor" studio of documentary films)

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